understanding of solution chemistry

State three contributions Arrhenius’ made to the understanding of solution chemistry.
State two conditions required for a solution to be in dynamic equilibrium.
The maximum mass of sugar a diabetic can have is 12 g. Determine the volume of juice they can drink with a sugar concentration of 14% W/V.
What volume of distilled water must be added to 112 mL of 0.750 mol/L hydrobromic acid solution in order to dilute it to a concentration of 0.250 mol/L?
Can the modified Arrhenius theory predict why NaHSO4(aq) can form a basic solution?
Write out the complete set of reactions for each of the following substances with water. a) CN-(aq) b) HNO3(aq) c) H2SO3(aq)
Each of the following solutions has a concentration of 0.1 mol/L. Compare the hydronium ion concentration and pH in each pair and explain why they are different. a) H2SO4(aq) vs. H2SO3(aq) b) H2S(aq) vs. NH3(aq).
2.88 g of HCl(g) is dissolved in water to make a 470 mL solution. Calculate the pH of the solution.
200 mg of solid potassium hydroxide is dissolved in water to make a 450 mL solution. Calculate the pH of the solution.
Question 10: A solution of lead(II) nitrate is added to a solution of lithium sulfide, producing lead(II) sulfide and lithium nitrate. The states of matter subscripts for these substances respectively are:
A) (aq), (s), (aq), (s)
B) (aq), (aq), (s), (s)
C) (aq), (aq), (s), (aq)
D) (s), (aq), (s), (aq)
Question 11: Which is a property of bases?
A) Bases react with Group 1 metals to generate hydrogen.
B) Bases taste sour.
C) Bases are electrolytes.
D) Bases turn blue litmus paper red.
Question 12: The statement that best describes the dissolving of an ionic solid in water is:
A) intermolecular forces are not a significant factor in the dissolving process
B) a substance that dissolves exothermically does so because the energy released by hydrogen bonding with water is less than the energy required to break its ionic bonds.
C) covalent bonds within the solid are broken in an endothermic process
D) a substance that dissolves exothermically does so because the energy released by hydrogen bonding with water is greater than the energy required to break its ionic bonds.
Question 13: Use the following equations to answer the question:
1. Mg(OH)2(s) —> Mg2+(aq) + 2 OH-(aq)
2. HCl(g) —> H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
3. CO2(g) —> CO2(aq)
4. Fe(s) —> Fe(s)
The process of dissociation is represented by the equation numbered:
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
Question 14: Use the list of laboratory apparatus to answer the question.
1. Graduated cylinder
2. Volumetric flask
3. Graduated pipet
4. Volumetric pipet
For maximum precision in the preparation of stock or diluted solutions, a chemist would use
A) 1 and 2
B) 2 and 3
C) 2 and 4
D) 3 and 4
Question 15: A student took 5.00 L of 2.00 mol/L Pb(NO3)2(aq) and diluted it by adding 30.0 L of distilled water. How many moles of solute are present in the diluted solution?
A) 0.286 mol
B) 0.50 mol
C) 10.0 mol
D) 0.075 mol
Question 16: A student prepared four aqueous solutions of an ionic compound.
1) 0.20 mol of solute in 5.0 L of solution
2) 0.50 mol of solute in 2.0 L of solution
3) 3.0 mol of solute in 15 L of solution
4) 1.0 mol of solute in 3.0 L of solution
The most dilute solution is
A) 1
B) 2
C)3
D)4
Question 17: Potassium iodide is added to table salt in small quantities to prevent enlargement of the thyroid gland. A mass of 0.076 mg is added per gram of NaCl. The concentration of KI, expressed in ppm is
A) 7.6 ppm
B) 760 ppm
C) 0.076 ppm
D) 76 ppm
Question 18: The strength of an acid depends upon the
A) concentration of the acid
B) volume of the acid
C) time it takes the acid to neutralize a base
D) extent to which the acid ionizes
Question 19: If the concentration of nitrate ions in a solution of copper(II) nitrate is 0.50 mol/L, the concentration of the copper(II) ions is
A) 1.00 mol/L
B) 0.25 mol/L
C) 0.075 mol/L
D) 0.50 mol/L
Question 20: When the pH of a solution changes from 10 to 8, the [OH-]
A)decreases and the solution becomes less basic
B) decreases and the solution becomes less acidic
C) increases and the solution becomes more basic
D) increases and the solution becomes more acidic
Question 21: In aqueous solution, the sulfate ion acts as a
A) weak polyprotic base
B) strong polyprotic acid
C) weak polyprotic acid
D) strong polyprotic base
Question 22: A student pipetted 10 mL of 0.10 mol/L HCl(aq) into 90 mL of distilled water. The pH of the dilute solution was
A) 1.10
B) 1.95
C) 1.00
D) 2.00
Question 23: What is the pH of a 0.15 mol/L aqueous solution of Ba(OH)2?
A) 0.82
B) 13.18
C) 13.48
D) 0.52
Question 24: A technician measured 50.0 mL of a strong acid stock solution and diluted it to 0.300 mol/L concentration by adding 200 mL of distilled water. What was the pH of the stock solution?
A) -0.176
B) 1.22
C) 0.176
D) -0.079
Question 25: A student added a few drops of phenolphthalein to a sample of an unknown solution. It remained colourless. She then added a few drops of bromothymol blue to a second sample which turned blue. The pH of the unknown solution is most likely
A) 7.0
B) 9.0
C) 8.0
D) 10.0

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