Nutrition and human health

Question text
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Select one:
a. Studies have shown that when people are overweight, losing as little as nine pounds (four kilograms) increases blood-glucose levels in Type 1 diabetics.
b. The World Bank suggests that one method to combat anemia is to prevent the spread of malaria and treat the hundreds of millions with the disease.
c. On the Nutrition Facts Panel, the percentage of Daily Value (% DV) represents the proportion of the total daily recommended amount that you will get from one serving of the food.
d. Elderly people are advised to consume colorful fruits and vegetables to increase their intake of lutein and zeaxanthin, two antioxidants that can protect the eyes against macular degeneration.
e. Storage of fat acts as an energy reserve (long term storage) and is incorporated into adipose tissue.
Question 2
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. The movement of protein and carbohydrates between fluid compartments happens by the process of osmosis.
b. Enriched flour with B vitamins, niacin, folate and thiamine contains 50% of the vitamins and minerals it replaces.
c. Potassium is the exchanged cation for sodium and helps maintain fluid balance.
d. When you are training, it is only important to focus on protein intake: carbohydrates and fats are not required in your diet.
e. One characteristic of randomized clinical interventional trial studies is that only researchers, but not participants, can choose which group a participant is assigned.
Question 3
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program involves clients receiving a card with a certain allocation of money for each month that can be used for food, clothing, and housing costs.
b. Sulphites are used as additives to blend oil and water and keep them from separating
c. Irradiation is treating food with ionizing radiation to kill the bacteria and parasites that cause toxicity and disease.
d. About ten thousand years ago, people began to cultivate crops and domesticate livestock in Babylonia, an area of the world that is known today as the Middle East.
e. The first stage of Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high glucose and low insulin levels.
Question 4
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Which of the following statements about physical activity is FALSE?
Select one:
a. Increasing moderate aerobic physical activity to more than the recommended amounts, such as five hours per week of moderate intensity, provides additional health benefits.
b. Increased physical activity has been found to lower the risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes, and various cancers.
c. Focus only on longer duration of activity because small amounts of activity are not beneficial to your health.
d. Muscle-strengthening activities at moderate or high intensity involving all major muscle groups two or more days per week provides additional health benefits to aerobic exercise.
e. Increased physical activity improves overall health by increasing cardiovascular and muscular fitness, increasing bone density and strength, and improving cognitive function.
Question 5
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What is one of the main functions of Vitamin A?
Select one:
a. Coenzyme
b. Antioxidant
c. Immune system function
d. Blood clotting
e. Energy metabolism assistance
Question 6
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. The legislation in the United States that determines the agricultural and food policy of the federal government is known as the Rural Bill.
b. One limitation of using body mass index as a measure of health is that an older person with osteoporosis can have more fat mass and lower bone mass resulting in a lower BMI than an older person of the same height without osteoporosis.
c. The elderly are susceptible to sarcopenia, and have significantly higher muscle mass, which is associated with weakness, movement disorders, and a generally poor quality of life.
d. To maximize vitamin C intake from foods, you should eat fruits and vegetables that have been lightly steamed or boiled.
e. Scientific studies have demonstrated that all beverages are capable of satisfying thirst and can make you feel full, or satiated.
Question 7
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Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Select one:
a. Having a blood alcohol content (BAC) of 0.15 does not impact mood or judgment.
b. The major functions of the mineral copper are to act as a coenzyme, and to aid in iron metabolism.
c. Caffeine acts as a natural pesticide, in the seeds, leaves, and fruit of many plants.
d. Lipids provide more energy per gram than carbohydrates.
e. Socioeconomic status is a measurement made up of three variables: income, occupation, and education.
Question 8
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Which of the following statements about strategies used by families that are food insecure is TRUE?
Select one:
a. Participate in government assistance programs.
b. Purchase junk food and fast food.
c. Obtain food from food banks in their communities.
d. Obtain food from soup kitchens in their communities.
e. All of the above.
Question 9
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Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Select one:
a. The American Academy of Pediatrics state that toddlers and children of all ages need 600 international units of vitamin D per day, which can be achieved with vitamin D-fortified milk and cereals.
b. Two consequences of dehydration are decreased blood volume, and heat stroke.
c. During a six-month stay at a space station, astronauts may experience increased bone mass.
d. The term “whole wheat” does not always mean the product is made with 100 percent whole grains, and brown breads are not always healthier than white as the color may come from added caramel.
Question 10
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True or False: A calorie (the amount of energy in the form of heat that is required to heat one gram of water one degree Celsius) is what is reported on the Nutrition Facts Panel (or Nutrition Facts Table)?
Select one:
True
False
11
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. Regarding a healthy diet, a balanced diet refers to the amount of energy you get from the nutrients you consume equals the amount of energy you expend during your day’s activities.
b. Commonly associated micronutrient deficiencies when consuming excessive alcohol include zinc, pyridoxine, folate, and vitamin A.
c. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are healthy.
d. Interventional clinical trial studies describe the occurrence and patterns of health events over time.
e. Increasing your intake of high fiber foods can increase cholesterol absorption.
Question 12
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Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Select one:
a. Calcitriol is the active hormone produced from vitamin D and increases calcium release from bone tissue, the absorption of calcium in the small intestine, and calcium reabsorption by the kidneys.
b. Chyme is a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that also contains gastric juices secreted by cells in the stomach.
c. The AMDR for fat is between 45 to 65 percent of Calories.
d. “Hitting the wall” is when muscles have used up all their stored glycogen and are therefore dependent on other nutrients to support their energy needs, but with decreased performance.
e. One method to estimate 1 tbsp of salad dressing is to use your thumb as a comparison.
Question 13
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Calculate the percentage of calories obtained from protein based on the following food item:
· Protein –> 10g
· Calories per serving –> 500
Select one:
a. 14%
b. 40%
c. 18%
d. 5%
e. 8%
Question 14
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Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Select one:
a. The hormone glucagon acts to improve the actions of insulin. One function is to continue storing glucose as glycogen.
b. When using the DRI as a guideline, it is sufficient to meet these recommendations on average over several days and not necessary to meet these recommendations every single day.
c. In the United States, there is much less testing, monitoring, and oversight of bottled water in comparison to tap water.
d. In cellular respiration, the chemical energy of glucose is transformed into cellular energy via the molecule, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and requires oxygen as a reagent.
e. It is recommended to increase your intake of monounsaturated fats because they lower bad cholesterol levels, but also increase good cholesterol levels.
Question 15
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Which of the following dietary health recommendations are TRUE?
Select one:
a. Eating a diet low in fiber, but high in trans and saturated fats, sodium and omega-3 fatty acids can be beneficial to heart health.
b. Increasing sodium intake can help with high blood pressure, stroke and kidney failure.
c. Consuming more fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and lean meats and dairy products is the first step to treating obesity.
d. Monitoring caloric intake and carbohydrate intake will help kidney disease patients manage their condition.
e. Avoiding fiber and reducing your intake of fluids can help alleviate constipation.
Question 16
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. Bile, which is used to digest fats, is made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
b. Examples of complete protein sources are eggs, fish, gelatin, soy, and quinoa.
c. Qualified health claims for a food product have supportive evidence, which is as definitive and substantial as with health claims.
d. Metabolic syndrome refers to a medical condition in which people have two or more risk factors for Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
e. A lipid contains 4 kilocalories per gram of energy.
Question 17
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Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Select one:
a. The sequence of thirst detection starts with receptor proteins in the heart, lungs, and medulla oblongata detecting greater fluid volume or reduced sodium concentration in the blood.
b. One strategy to achieve the goal of reduced caloric intake promoted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines is to monitor calorie intake from alcoholic beverages in adults.
c. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is used to sweeten food products because it has a slighter higher concentration of fructose than glucose, and fructose is sweeter than glucose.
d. Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is important for the citric acid cycle because it is involved in carrying the carbon atoms of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids.
e. One of the strategies to assess your lifestyle and make healthier choices in life is to find out the medical history of your family and identify the diseases you may be more susceptible to getting.
Question 18
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. Worldwide, the populations that are most at risk for iron-deficiency anemia by all causes are infants, children, the elderly, and women.
b. Fast-releasing carbohydrates include disaccharides, such as amylose, maltose, and lactose.
c. Depression, low self-esteem, compulsive disorders, and emotional trauma are sometimes linked with decreased food intake and risks of obesity.
d. The second readily available source of caffeine consumption is tea.
e. Health claims for food products are regulated by laws and may never claim to cure or treat a disease.
Question 19
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Which of the following is an evidence-based behavioral recommendation for weight management?
Select one:
a. Do not eat a nutrient-dense breakfast.
b. When eating out, choose smaller portions or lower-calorie options.
c. Focus on the total number of carbohydrates consumed.
d. Eat your meals at the same time as watching television or using the computer so that you can burn more energy while eating.
e. Monitor the price of the foods you eat, so that you do not spend more money on foods containing high amounts of vitamins.
Question 20
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Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Select one:
a. 1 roasted chicken thigh has more protein content than 1 cup of roasted lentils.
b. Capillaries have extremely small diameters that substantial slow down the speed of blood flow. This dramatic reduction in blood flow gives cells time to harvest the nutrients in blood and exchange metabolic wastes.
c. Visceral fat is a better predictor of disease risk than total fat mass because it is involved in the release of hormones and inflammatory factors that contribute to disease risk.
d. One scientific study has reported that higher dietary intakes of magnesium were associated with increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the hip.
e. Slow-releasing carbohydrates are polysaccharides, such as amylopectin, glycogen, and fibers.
n 21
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Which of the following pairs of Nutrient-dense food alternatives is more appropriate considering the types of food?
Select one:
a. Whole milk –> Fresh apples or berries
b. Sweetened cereals –> Oven-baked French fries or sweet potato baked fries
c. Fried vegetables –> Steamed or roasted vegetables
d. Sweetened-fruit yogurt –> Canadian bacon or lean ham
e. Bacon or sausage –> Low-fat or fat-free milk
Question 22
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During this stage of the life cycle, growth and organ development is complete, high sodium intake should be avoided to minimize the consequences of high blood pressure, and people have reached their physical peak.
Select one:
a. Older adolescence
b. Young adulthood
c. Early middle age
d. Middle age
Question 23
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True or False: Fast-releasing carbohydrates include both monosaccharides and disaccharides?
Select one:
True
False
Question 24
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Which of the following is a recommendation to balance your dietary intake of lipids?
Select one:
a. Choose foods containing trans fats.
b. Choose low-fat foods because they are healthy.
c. Stay away from unsaturated fats.
d. Increase your intake of saturated fats
e. Increase your intake of unsaturated fats such as Omega 3s.
Question 25
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Which of the following statements about food insecurity is TRUE?
Select one:
a. One of the types of malnutrition is macronutrient deficiency and relates to inadequate vitamin and mineral intake.
b. One of the three main groups that is most at risk of hunger worldwide is the urban poor in developing nations who also lack access to clothing and food.
c. Households with limited resources use a variety of methods to increase their access to adequate food, such purchasing junk food and fast food—cheaper options that are not very nutritious.
d. The elderly, one of the at-risk groups, are more susceptible to contracting diseases, such as measles and pneumonia when they are undernourished.
e. Food insecurity is defined as not having adequate access to money in order to buy food and clothes.
Question 26
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. On the Nutrition Facts Panel / Table, the Daily Value (DV) represents the recommended amount of a given nutrient based on the RDI of that nutrient in a 2,500-kilocalorie diet.
b. Spices and herbs, such as paprika, basil, oregano, and cumin, are a greater source of dietary Vitamin E than oils and nuts.
c. The sugar in sports drinks is helpful in maintaining blood-glucose levels needed to fuel muscles.
d. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis (BIA) is based on the fact that fat increases the passage of electricity through the body.
e. According to the textbook, a plant-based diet requires that 60% of protein is obtained from plant foods.
Question 27
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. Food manufacturers are required by the FDA to list on their packages if the product contains any of the eight most common ingredients that cause food allergies.
b. Regarding the influence of sex on how fast BAC can rise in an individual, a man’s BAC will rise more quickly than a woman’s.
c. In 1962, it was proposed that he Pima Indians carried a “thrifty gene” that makes them very inefficient at storing fat during times of plenty so they will starve when food is scarce and therefore need to hunt more.
d. Nerves communicate with each other via chemicals built from carbohydrates called neurotransmitters.
e. On a daily basis, about 40 percent of dietary proteins in the body are catabolized to produce cellular energy.
Question 28
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Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Select one:
a. Measuring bilirubin is a good way to detect liver-function abnormality.
b. Marasmus is a condition where the consumption of both dietary protein and overall calories is insufficient, of which more than 50 million children under the age of 5 are affected worldwide.
c. Folate intake during pregnancy is essential for fetal development.
d. Foods that have a high percentage of saturated fatty acids tend to be liquid at room temperature.
e. Colostrum is a yellow fluid produced before milk production starts and is high in minerals, fat-soluble vitamins, and immunoglobulins that pass from the mother to the baby.
Question 29
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A number of physiological changes take place during this time of development including limbs lengthening steadily and the skull and brain grow to nearly adult size.
Select one:
a. Adolescence
b. Early childhood
c. Childhood
d. Puberty
Question 30
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Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Select one:
a. Trans fat is an omega-3 nonessential fatty acid that is important in synaptic transmission in the brain during fetal development.
b. One possible symptom of a food allergy is death.
c. Middle-aged adult start to experience joints aching after a highly active day, body fat accumulating, and a loss of muscle tone and elasticity in the connective tissue.
d. One of the benefits of fluoride is that it enhances remineralization of destroyed enamel.
e. Humans do not produce the enzymes that can break down dietary fibers, such lignin, cellulose and gums.
31
Question text
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. Plants synthesize the slow-releasing carbohydrate, glucose, from carbon dioxide in the air and water, and by harnessing the sun’s energy.
b. Muscle tissue burns more calories than fat tissue even while at rest and thus the more muscle mass a person has, the lower their basal metabolic rate (BMR).
c. One method to estimate ½ cup of cooked vegetables is to use a cupped hand as a comparison.
d. Breastfed babies also are more likely to develop asthma and allergies, and breastfeeding increases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
e. Muscle tissue is the only organ in the human body that is capable of exporting nutrients for energy production to other tissues.
Question 32
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Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Select one:
a. Sustainability is based upon the principle that everything needed for human survival depends upon the natural environment.
b. One of the health complications of excess sodium is high blood pressure.
c. Trans fats can behave like unsaturated fats, and therefore, the body processes them as if they were unsaturated fats.
d. Insufficient sleep can increase the risk for heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and depression.
e. One limitation of using the glycemic index (GI) as a nutritional guide is that some nutrient-dense foods have higher GIs than less nutritious food.
Question 33
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures changes in the price level paid for goods and energy resources.
b. Some of the common disputes and controversies in food politics include the genetic modification of plants, the potential dangers of food additives, and chemical run-off from large-scale farms.
c. In the stomach, triacylglycerols are digested into diglycerides and fatty acids by the enzyme lingual lipase.
d. Polysorbates are used as additives to increase tartness to prevent food from becoming rancid.
e. One benefit of food fortification is that adding citric acid to wheat helps increase intake for pregnant women, which decreases the risk of neural tube defects in their children.
Question 34
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. Pregnant women with a pre-pregnancy BMI above thirty are at a higher risk of a preterm delivery and an underweight infant.
b. Saliva contains both salivary and pancreatic amylase, which digest disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and starches into their monomeric sugar units.
c. The kidneys do not participate in the reabsorption of sodium, and therefore, it is important to increase dietary intake of sodium.
d. According to the WHO the two main factors responsible for the obesity epidemic worldwide are the decreased intake of energy-dense food and decreased level of physical activity that is mainly associated with modernization, urbanization, and industrialization.
e. Nutritional reports that uses only a single study gives you very limited information, but if a body of literature supports a finding, it gives you more confidence in it.
Question 35
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. The primary electrolyte lost in sweat is potassium.
b. One strength of using the glycemic index (GI) as a nutritional guide is that mixed meals (which combine low- and high-GI foods) do not change the GI for the meal.
c. One of the solutions to the challenges of building a sustainable food system include is to provide education on food origin and production.
d. Polar amino acids are hydrophobic, meaning they repel water, and include glycine, threonine, and serine.
e. The difference between food enrichment and food fortification is that enrichment adds new nutrients to foods, while fortification adds nutrients to restore those that were lost during processing.
Question 36
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. When reading the ingredient list for a food item, the higher up the words “partially hydrogenated oil” are on the list of ingredients, the more trans fat the product contains.
b. A molecule of glycogen may contain in excess of fifty thousand single glucose units.
c. Hyponatremia, is when there is low blood-sodium level, and occurs in athletes because of excessive sodium loss from sweating.
d. Rapid weight loss is not recommended for overweight / obese preteens or younger children due to the risk of deficiencies and stunted growth.
e. One of the challenges to building a sustainable food system is to change how we produce, process, and distribute food.
Question 37
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Which of the following suggestions is NOT a method for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.
Select one:
a. Weight-bearing exercises, such as weight training and running, can increase bone strength because mechanical stress is one of the activation signals for bone remodeling.
b. Eating a balanced diet throughout life is helpful in preventing the onset of osteoporosis and harmful fractures in later life because low intakes of calcium and vitamin D are associated with an increased risk of developing the disease.
c. BMD screening for people that have one or more risk factors for osteoporosis, such as women age sixty-five or older and men age seventy or older.
d. Reducing the number of falls a person has, through fall prevention, decreases the likelihood of sustaining a fracture.
e. If a secondary disease that affects bone health, for example by interfering with calcium absorption or vitamin D function, exists simultaneously with osteoporosis, you should only treat one of the two disorders because it is dangerous to treat both at the same time.
Question 38
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Employment status of a new mother can impact whether or not she breastfeeds and/or for how long she is able to breastfeed her baby.
Select one:
True
False
Question 39
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Select one:
a. On the Nutrition Facts Panel, the term “Good Source” means that the food contains 20 to 29% of a nutrient’s DV.
b. Limitations of epidemiological studies are that they are difficult to carry on for long periods of time, are costly, and require that participants remain compliant with the intervention
c. The AMDR for protein is between 45 to 65 percent of Calories.
d. The omega-3 fatty acids, linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), can be found abundantly in nuts, seeds, and canola.
e. Adults over age sixty are more likely to be obese than young or middle-aged adults.
Question 40
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During pregnancy a woman should consume between 175 to 265 grams of carbohydrates because:
Select one:
a. Carbohydrates fuel fetal brain development
b. Unrefined, complex carbohydrates provide phytochemicals, antioxidants, and fiber
c. Carbohydrates help to build the placenta and supply energy for the growth of the unborn baby
d. Refined carbohydrates are full of important nutrients for both the mother and unborn baby
e. All of the Above
f. A, B, and C only

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