If one cannot purify a microbial agent that causes disease because the bacterium cannot be cultured, would Koch’s postulated be satisfied?
What is a causative agent of the bubonic plague?
What was the accomplishment of Antonie van Leewenhoeck?
Penicillin was first used in 1943. When were the Penicillin-resistance bacteria identified?
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a bacterium that causes foodborne infections. What do O and H signify in the nomenclature of this bacterium?
T/F The longer human co-evolved with pathogens, the more likely that bacterium causes a particular disease.
Best way to decrease the incidence of anti-microbial resistance
what is an extra layer in the cell envelope that Gram-negative have in comparison to Gram-positive bacteria?
What are PAMPs
Select three features which describe the endothelial cell
What is the function of C3 convertase?
stratified squamous epithelium
simple columnar epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
how many epithelia layers does the skin have?
does the skin have a neutral or low pH?
Does the skin provide a dry or humid environment?
How many layers does the mucosal tissue have?
Does the mucosal tissue have a low or neutral pH?
Does the mucosal layer provide a dry or humid environment?
How is the myeloperoxidase actively regulated
What is the main function of inflammasome?
Which cell is not phagocytic?
These cells are critical in the adaptive immune responses to intracellular pathogens, and they bind MHC I displayed antigens.
The secondary, but not the primary, immune response is based on which component?
Which two immunoglobulins are involved in maternal immunity?
This protein complex is expressed on professional phagocytic cells such as macrophages and is primarily involved in presenting the epitopes of an antigen to CD4+ cells.
T cell surface receptors for antigen partly recognize
These cells are responsible for mediating the production of antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) directed against invasive pathogens (antibodies). These cells differentiate into plasma cells.
Which cell type produces antibodies?
For vaccination against mycobacterial diseases such as tuberculosis, the most important facet of the immune response to be stimulated is:
Which would be the best vaccine to use for an immunocompromised individual who is traveling for a short time to a country where the disease is prevalent?
Which adjuvant would you use to elicit a strong Th2 response in humans, if you have appropriate filtration strategy? Consider the safety of the adjuvant for humans.
Which regions of 16S rRNA would you use for the sequencing step during 16S rRNA sequencing to differentiate between the different microbial species?
Which gene transcript has a higher copy number based on this graph obtained from the qPCR analysis?
Which regions of 16S rRNA would you use for the PCR amplification to obtain microbial census by sequencing?
Which omics technique can be used to identify the gene transcripts?
What is the term used to describe the impaired microbiota or microbial imbalance?
anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium that lives in the human colon:
number or microbes in colon
number of microbes in small intestine
transit time of contents in colon
transit time of contents in small intestine
what is absorbed in the small intestine?
what is absorbed by the colon?
Where are propionibacterium?
Where are Lactobacillus?
Where are Streptococcus salivarius?
Where are Bacteroidetes
Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella Typhi, which is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen and it can grow in pure culture. This bacterium sometimes doesn’t cause disease and instead leads to asymptomatic carriers of typhoid fever, where the persons who have the presence of bacteria remain healthy. Which postulate is problematic to meet in case of typhoid fever?
This bacterium stains by acid-fast staining and has been discovered by Robert Koch. Moreover, this bacterium can lead to the infection of the lungs. What is it?
Put Koch’s postulates in order.
What alternative method other than Koch’s postulates relies on the cure or prevention of disease to show that a specific disease is caused by a specific pathogen?
Colitis in a specific mice model correlates with the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis, which induce the disease in specific pathogen free wild type mice. However, these two bacteria do not by themselves induce colitis when administered to germ-free mice. What type of pathogens are these bacteria?
You identified a new pathogen, which is present in the inflamed colon of individuals, and it is not present in any healthy individuals. You are able to culture this bacterium in vitro, unfortunately this pathogen doesn’t infect any animals, and no brave individuals will expose themselves to the infection with this bacterium. Which Koch postulate is not met based on this information?
You are interested in the detection of Salmonella Typhimurium in the diseased tissue of a patient. This bacterium is a facultative intracellular pathogen and it can grow in pure culture. What would be the best technique to use for the detection of this bacterium?
How is the sandwich ELISA different from the indirect ELISA?
In which years was there a golden age of microbiology?
Did John Needham’s experimental results support/agree with Francesco Redi’s conclusions?
Which group of bacteria has LPS?
This bacterium was discovered after an outbreak in 1976, it causes pneumonia and is a waterborne infection, increasingly present in the USA.
What is the part of LPS that contains endotoxin and secures LPS to the outer membrane?
The function of these structures on cells can enhance the cell’s surface area and facilitate the absorption of nutrients. What is the name of the structure?
What is the name of the structure of the cell on the side of the cell that is marked with a green square? (refer to slide 20 in lecture 2.1)
You are a microbe trying to establish an infection in a host. You are trying to evade the immune system as best as you can. Explain how you would avoid the immune response in the following scenarios.
What is the fate of Salmonella that is within the Salmonella containing vacuole?
Which of the following statements does NOT apply to IgG?
Which cells are described below? These cells are responsible for mediating the production of antigen specific immunoglobulin (Ig) directed against invasive pathogens (typically known as antibodies). These cells differentiate into plasma cells
Please match an adaptive immune cells with its function: Th1 cells
Please match an adaptive immune cell with its function: Th2 cells
Please match an adaptive immune cell with its function: Memory T cells
Please match an adaptive immune cell with its function: CD8+ T cells
Protection against microorganisms inside cells is provided by:
A Fab fragment in the antibody
What is the minimum percentage of children which needs to be vaccinated successfully in order to achieve herd immunity to diphtheria:
Look at this phylogenetic tree and answer which species of bacteria below are most closely related
What is the name of the DNA that is the product of amplification or replication events, for instance during rRNA sequence analysis process?
The idea that diseases, such as cholera are spread by pollutants or unpleasant odors is known as:
Which of the following is NOT a step in Koch’s postulates?
Koch’s Postulates establish:
Which one(s) is an example of Microbiota Shift Disease?
Which claims are refuted by Redi’s experiment in 1668?
Which bacterium is described below? This bacterium is also called Iraqibacter, it is a soil bacterium that was first identified in wounds but now present in hospitals. This bacterium is characterized by high incidence of antimicrobial resistance.
Why did tuberculosis come back in the 1990’s
Match agents with a disease:
This cell type has a short half-life and produces NETs to entrap bacteria it is a phagocytic cell that often undergoes a process of apoptosis
This cell is a non phagocytic cell and is present in close proximity to blood vessels; one of the functions of the cell is to increase vascular permeability
Please select which belongs in the innate immune system
Which type of B Cell Activation is absent children under the age of 2?
You plan an experiment and you would like to obtain a profile of bacterial microorganisms from a colon of a person infected with Clostriudium difficile, but you’re not interested in gene pathways or quantification of these microorganisms. Which technique could you use for this experiment.
A family member went through antibiotic treatment and asked you to bring him or her probiotics to improve digestion. what would you bring?
The woman is presenting with gray or white vaginal discharge, strong, fish like odor, and burning sensation when urinating. Which types of bacteria do you think are now predominantly present in the vagina of this woman .
What is an example of anabolic function of the gut microbiota?
Which of the following choices lists the steps of pathogenesis in the correct order
How can you detect the presence of pathogen in diseased tissue?
Which disease does not meet postulate #2 as formulated by Koch and for what reason?
Bacteria grow and metabolize by oxidizing sulfides, reducing sulfate, oxidizing ammonia or reducing nitrate. T/F
What are the examples of PAMPs>
What do goblet cells produce?
In humans, skin epithelium is…
A feature of a salmonella-based vaccine expressing antigens from other infectious agents is that:
What is true about IgM?
Specific antibodies are readily detectable in serum following primary contact with antigen after:
What was one of the very first bacteria diseases to be identified and linked to a specific disease, and by who?
What is the name of a chemical that is used only on inanimate objects and cannot be safely ingested as antimicrobial?
Describe the innate immune system
The circulation of a two-month old breastfed baby will contain maternal _ due to the breastfeeding.
This omics technique utilizes specific proteolytic cleavage by trypsin, followed by mass spectrometry-based analysis using peptide fragmentation. What type of molecules can you analyze using this workflow?
Match the bacterium with the appropriate term:
This specific detection method relies on an antibody-based detection of a bacterial pathogen, and it can provide quantitative information about the concentration of an antigen in a sample. This method will not provide information about the co-localization of the bacteria with cellular compartments nor other types of visualization. Which method is it?
Which cells are keratinized to protect the tissue?
You are a microbe trying to establish an infection in a host. You are trying to evade the immune system as best as you can. Explain what you would do to avoid being killed by a macrophage?
Which cell is described in this paragraph? This cell is a non-phagocytic cell that can lyse tumor cells. One of the functions of this cell is to kill cells infected with the virus. This cell is also a primary source of IFN gamma.
Which cell is described in this paragraph? It is a phagocytic cell of the innate immune system, whose primary functions in the activation of T cells. This cell presents antigens and migrates via the lymphatic system to lymph nodes upon activation with PAMPs.
Which one of the following diseases has been completely eradicated world-wide?
Which of the following is a product of microbiota metabolism?
Which of the following was a goal of the Human Microbiome Project?
To detect the presence of a single species of bacteria in a patient sample using real-time PCR, primers that anneal to conserved regions of the 16S rRNA gene of this species must be used. T/F
_ refers to the capacity of an organism to cause disease.
_ refers to the process by which microbes cause disease in a host.
What are the specific-pathogen-free mice?
Pathogen A has an ID50 of 50 particles, pathogen B has an ID50 of 1,000 particles, and pathogen C has an ID50 of 1 x 10^6 particles. Which pathogen is most virulent?
You are interested in the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in diseased tissue of a patient. The bacterium is an obligate intracellular pathogen and it cannot grow in a pure culture. What would be the best technique to use for the detection of this bacterium?
You would like to prove cause and effect for a pathogen that is suspected to cause specific diseases, where you would like to use a method, such as Koch’s postulates, but you cannot cultivate the organism you suspect is causing disease outside of the organism. What could you do to help here?
Which assay can be used to be used to measure the cell-to-cell spread of intracellular bacteria, but it does not require the use of expensive fluorescence/luminescence microscopy
How is the severity of the disease determined?
True pathogen or opportunistic:
You would like to find the best animal model to study human disease in an animal. There are many important factors to consider while choosing the animal model. Which factor is the least important one/not essential in choosing the animal model
What is the role of IRB?
Please select features which describe the M1 phenotype of macrophages:
Please select the answers the describes the innate immune system
Which of the following organs/body surface would normally contain the most bacteria
You would like to find the best animal model to study the function of th1 cells (adaptive immune cells) in the control of bacterial infection. This specific bacterium can infect Caenorhabditis elegans, and you would like to avoid writing an IACUC protocol to perform this research. Based on this information, can you use C. elegans as a model for your study?
What type of effect do cytokines such as IL-8 have on neutrophils?
Match a vaccine type with the description.
Match Koch’s postulates to Dr. Marshall’s experimental observations/data supporting the postulate with respect to H. pylori as a causative agent of gastric ulcers.
It is 2020 and you would like to conduct a study of 20,000 human patients suffering from bacterial infections in hepatic cirrhosis which were admitted to the clinic between 2018 and 2019. What type of study would it be?
Which organism is NOT regulated by IACUC protocols?
Under which conditions the human volunteer research is NOT ethical and should not be performed? Select one.
Match the animal model with a negative feature of that model:
What are the PAMPs?
You plated serial dilutions of Salmonella-infected cell culture from the gentamicin protection assay to establish the number of intracellular bacteria based on the colony-forming units. The next day you obtain colonies on the agar plate and you count them all. Which one(s) of these plates would you use to calculate the number of bacteria? Remember that you have to ensure that the colony numbers are within the appropriate range for meaningful calculation and also for statistical tests.
How does the beneficence principle ensure ethical human volunteer research?
You plan an experiment in germ-free mice to identify the function of the complex gram-positive microbiome, which is not culturable in vitro, on the clearance of Salmonella from the gut. Which type of approach would you use?
Why do you use gentamicin in gentamicin protection assay?
You would like to find the best animal model to study the function of macrophages (innate immune cells) in the control of bacterial infection. This specific bacterium can infect Caenorhabditis elegans, and you would like to avoid writing an IACUC protocol to perform this research. Based on this information, can you use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for your study?
Which bacterial molecule is recognized by the TLR4 receptor on human macrophages?
Standard Koch’s postulates can be easily used to study microbial shift diseases
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