Historical and contemporary perspectives of management

Two overarching perspectives about management are the _ perspectives.
historical and contemporary

Complete the following sentence with all the true statements about the classical perspective of management. The classical perspective of management.
assumed that people were rational, emphasized finding ways to manage work more efficiently, and had two branches – scientific and administrative

Scientific management is the study of work methods to improve the productivity of __ .
individual workers

Administrative management is concerned with managing _ .
the total organization

Peter Drucker is credited with providing the first modern handbook on the subject of _.
management

Select the two overarching perspectives about management.
Historical and Contemporary

What are the two branches of the classical viewpoint of management?
scientific and administrative

The scientific approach to management emerged in the early 20th century when companies wished to increase worker productivity to counteract __ .
Labor shortages

The behavioral management viewpoint emphasized
the importance of understanding human behavior and motivating employees to achieve

Which three individuals helped pioneer administrative management theory?
Fayol, Weber, Spaulding

Which of these statements represent ideas that Peter Drucker introduced in his book The Practice of Management?

  • without customers, businesses wouldn’t exist
  • employees should be treated as assets
  • A corporation can be thought of as a human community

One issue with the classical viewpoint is that it tends to view humans as cogs in a machine, thereby rendering it overly __.
mechanistic

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Complete the following sentence with the true statements about the classical perspective of management. The classical perspective of management.

  • emphasized finding ways to manage work more efficiently
  • had two branches – scientific and administrative
  • assumed that people were rational

The __ viewpoint places emphasis on the importance of understanding the actions of humans and the motivation and encouragement of employees toward achievement.
behavioral

Who is know as the “father of industrial psychology” because of his revolutionary ideas on studying human behavior in workplaces?
Hugo Munsterberg

Administrative management is concerned with managing __ .
the total organization

Identify the two theorists who contributed the most to the human relations movement.
McGregor and Maslow

Issues with the classical viewpoint include that it:

  • fails to account for the importance of human needs
  • views humans as cogs in a machine
  • is overly mechanistic

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs resulted from the study of _ .
what motivates people to perform

In which of the following ways did Munsterberg suggest that psychologists could contribute to industry?

  • Recognize the psychological conditions necessary for employees to do their best work
  • Identify ways managers can influence employees to take desired actions
  • Identify the people who are best suited for a job

Which approach to management relies upon research in psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in order to develop theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers?
behavioral science

Which three individuals helped pioneer administrative management theory?
Weber, Spaulding, Fayol

What are the two branches of quantitative management?
Operations management, and management science

Maslow and McGregor focused on the study of __ as it relates to increasing worker productivity.
human relations

Management science is sometimes known as __ .
operations research

Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs proposes that people are motivated by which of the following needs?

  • Love
  • Self- actualization
  • esteem
  • safety
  • physiological

__ management focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization’s products or services more effectively.
Operations

The classical viewpoint of management emphasizes ways to _ .
manage work more efficiently

The __ perspective on management consists of the systems, contingency, and quality-management viewpoints.
contemporary

Which of the four disciplines are included in the behavioral science approach to management?

  • Psychology
  • Economics
  • Sociology
  • Anthropology

A set of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose is called a(n)__.
system

The application of quantitative techniques, such as statistics and computer simulations, to management is called __ management.
Quantitative

__ are the people, money, information, equipment, and materials required to produce an organization’s goods or services.
Inputs

Management science focuses on the use of _ to aid in problem-solving and decision-making.
mathematics

James has a small bakery specializing in gourmet brownies. Based on the systems viewpoint, the flour, sugar, yeast, and eggs he uses in baking would be considered _, whereas the decorated brownies he sells to customers would be considered ___.
inputs; outputs

Operations management:

  • assists managers with decisions regarding how to achieve the highest quality goods and services
  • governs managers’ decisions about how to increase productivity and efficiency
  • plays and important role in managing the supply chain

According to the systems viewpoint, the part of a system that involves turning raw materials and knowledge into a new and different product or service is called _ .
transformational processes

What are the three viewpoints of the contemporary perspective of management?
systems, contingency, and quality-management

Cheyenne has a small bakery specializing in gourmet cupcakes. In response to customer demand, she has added gluten-free cupcakes to her menu. This customer demand would be characterized as __ .
feedback

A system is a set of _ parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose.
interrelated

Which management viewpoint asks the question, “What method is the best to use under these particular circumstances?”
Contingency

According to the systems viewpoint, what are three types of inputs?
People, money, and equipment

Select all of the true statements regarding Gray Hamel’s thoughts on management:

  • much of management theory is dated and doesn’t fit the current realities of organizational life
  • management innovation is essential to future organizational success
  • we must look at management as a process, and then make improvements and innovation ongoing and systematic

In terms of the systems viewpoint, profits and losses are types of _ .
outputs

_ management encourages managers to make facts and logic the foundation of their approach to decision-making.
Evidence- Based

According to the systems perspective, transformational processes are responsible for turning
inputs into outputs

Tyrone is reviewing customer response forms and learns that while some people like the company’s new outerwear designs, the majority of customers do not. Which part of a system is Tyrone using to get his information?
feedback

According to the __ viewpoint, a management problem should be handled according to the individual at the environmental situation.
contingency

Quality control, quantity assurance, and total quality management are all part of the _ management viewpoint.
quality

According to Gary Hamel, management should be viewed as a(n) __ to which ongoing improvements and innovation can be made systematically.
Process

Quality control and quality assurance are two strategies a company can use to ensure __ .
quality

Evidence-based management focuses on bringing _ to the decision process.
Rationality

Which of the following are components of total quantity management (TQM)?

  • Emphasize continuous improvement
  • Use customer and employee feedback
  • Involve every employee
  • Use accurate standards to identify and eliminate problems.

The Six Sigma approach relies on __ to help improve manufacturing processes.
statistical analysis

Which of the following are true of a learning organization?

  • It is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge
  • It actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge within itself

The quality-management viewpoints includes which concepts?

  • Quality assurance
  • Quality control
  • Total quality management

In order to build a __ organization, managers must build a commitment to learning, work to generate ideas with impact, and work to generalize ideas with impact.
learning

The ability of a product or service to meet customer needs refers to __.
quality

Which of the following questions should you research in order to better understand a company before a job interview?

  • What do clients mention in their reviews of the company and its products/services?
  • Who are the key players touted on the company’s website?
  • What are the company’s mission and vision statements and do I support them?
  • When was the company founded and how has it evolved over the years?
  • What does the company seem to value most, and how does it treat its employees?

__ management stresses continuous improvement, employee involvement, learning from customers and employees, and accurate standards for identifying and eliminating problems.
Total Quality

A company would rely on ISO 9000 to _ .
reduce manufacturing flaws

_ organization actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge
learning

Which of the following are the key functions/roles managers must perform in order to create learning organizations?

  • Work to generate ideas with impact
  • Work to generalize ideas with impact
  • Build a commitment to learning

Which of the following statements are accurate regarding the importance of learning about a company’s mission and vision statements before a job interview?

  • these statements tell you why the company exists
  • these statements tell you what the company wants to achieve over time
  • you will be a better fit for a company if you support their mission and vision statements
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