Factors that Affect Appraisals of Expectancy Violations

Pre-Interactional Expectations-knowledgeskills that communicator brings to interactionInteractional Expectations-an individual’s ability to carry out the interaction
Factors that Affect Appraisals of Expectancy Violations:
-Threat threshold: tolerance for distance violations-
Arousal: increased interest or attention when deviations from expectations occur-
Communicator Reward Valence: sum of + and – characteristics of a person and the potential for them to carry out rewards or punishments-
Violation Valence: perceived + or – value of a deviation from expectations
Perception: the process by which you filter and interpret what your senses relay so you cancreate a meaningful picture of the world.
Stages and influential factors of perception:
Selection Process-characteristics of the perceived and perceiver [p.o.v., presentneeds/purposes/goals, personal relevance, expectations]
Organization Process-proximity, similar, simplicity, experience, expectations
Interpretation Process-expectations, relative intensity, unique
Selection-General Traits: used to evaluate everyone and articulated
Specific Traits – used to evaluate only a few people and unarticulated
-Halo Effect•One positive trait perceived, assume other traits are also positive
Organization-Primacy Effect:initial information carries the most weight
-Recency Effect:most recent information carries the most weight
Assumptions of SI theory:
Humans act toward others on the basis of the meanings those others have for them
-Meaning is created in interaction between people
-Meaning is modified through an interpretive process
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Self-Conceptsdevelop through interaction with others.
Self-Concepts providean importantmotive for behavior.
Self-esteemrefers to how we value our self-concept or who we are.
Self: the ability to reflect on ourselves from the perspective of others.
I: the subject or acting self that is spontaneous, impulsive and creative.
Me: the object or observing self that is reflective and socially aware.
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Generalized other: the attitude of the whole community
Particular others: individuals who are significant to us
Looking-glass self:-imagine how we appear to others-imagine their judgment of our appearance-we feel hurt or pride based on these self-feelingsPygmalion Effect:living up or down to another person’s expectations of us.SI key concepts: Mind –ability to use symbols that have common social meanings, or the waypeople internalize societyThought –inner conversations with ourselves that help us to make sense of reality
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Impression Formation Heuristics
Availability Heuristic→ we make inferences on person’s personality based on what easily comesto mind
Representativeness Heuristic→ when perceived traits match assumptions about other traits thanyou infer those other traits to be true
Simulation Heuristic→ try to imagine person behaving in a particular way and if you canimagine it than you accept that perception and you make an inference

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