Why is glycolysis believed to have evolved early in the history of life?
C. It is present in most every type of cell.
Which of the following steps in the breakdown of glucose does not require oxygen?
List, in order, the stages of aerobic cellular respiration.
Cellular respiration begins with glycolysis. The resulting pyruvates are modified and then moved into the citric acid cycle within the matrix of the mitochondria. The resulting NADH molecules from glycolysis are then moved to the electron transport chain in which they deliver electrons. The electrons are passed down the electron transport chain, producing ATP and ultimately combining with oxygen.
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Whose work proved conclusively that spontaneous generation of life from nonlife was not possible?
A. Louis Pasteur
The reason that metabolizing cells are small in size is because
B. the surface area of a cell must be able to accomplish nutrient/waste exchange.
All of the following are possible origins of cell organelles in eukaryotes EXCEPT
E. groups of prokaryotic cells begin to live in a small group sharing products of metabolism.
In the fluid-mosaic model of the plasma membrane, the phospholipid molecules are oriented so that the _ heads are facing the outside environment and the ____
B. hydrophilic, hydrophobic
Which of the following is not a function of the plasma membrane?
D. contains the genetic information
A short chain of sugar attached to a protein molecule on the plasma membrane is called
E. a glycoprotein.
Which of the following can cross the plasma membrane because of its selective permeability?
A. gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide
The movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane is called
During a hurricane, salt water invades fresh water marshes causing many of the plants to die. The plants are killed because the salt water solution is ______ to the plants, drawing water from their cells.
What is the function of cholesterol in the plasma membrane?
A solution is at equilibrium across a plasma membrane. If 50 molecules were to enter the cell, how many molecules would need to exit the cell in order to maintain the equilibrium?
Often when a person is admitted to the hospital, an intravenous solution of normal saline is begun. Since this does not harm the patient, what is the tonicity of normal saline compared to your blood
Choose the CORRECT statement about solute concentrations or particles inside and outside the cell.
C. In an isotonic solution the amount of water inside and outside the cell is equal.
Brad placed a drop of blood in some distilled water. What happened in the red blood cells?
B. The cells burst.
The assisted transport of a molecule across the cell membrane without an expenditure of energy is known as what?
B. facilitated transport
In the sodium potassium pump, sodium and potassium are both pumped out of the cell via active transport.
Which of the following does not utilize active transport?
A. movement of oxygen from the lungs into the blood
Sheree observed an amoeba feeding by engulfing the prey with its false feet or pseudopods. This process is known as
During exocytosis, the phospholipids present in the vesicle membrane will end up in the plasma membrane.
Which of the following processes moves large molecules across a membrane in the opposite direction of the others?
What cell structure is composed of a stack of slightly curved saccules that are important in packaging and secretion?
C. Golgi apparatus
What is the obvious dark-stained structure within the nucleus that contains ribosomal RNA called?
The grainy-looking substance inside the nucleus is composed of
B. DNA and proteins.
The nucleus of a cell in your thigh muscle contains the same genes as the nucleus of a cell in your brain.
How large is a nuclear pore in the nuclear envelope?
A. larger than a ribosome
If a cell lacked ribosomes, it would not be able to
B. synthesize proteins.
What components make up the ribosomes?
A. proteins and rRNA
What do the SER and RER have in common?
B. the formation of transport vesicles
What is the main function of the ribosomes in the cell?
A. to synthesize proteins
Which of the following would be a way of finishing this hypothesis about the function of the Golgi apparatus? If the Golgi apparatus is involved in packaging products for secretion, then
A. vesicles must travel from the Golgi to the cell surface
Which organelle can be likened to a post office?
E. Golgi apparatus
What cellular organelle is especially abundant in phagocytic white blood cells?
Which of the following is not associated with the cytoskeleton?
Which of the following protein fibers is used for cellular movement and are extremely thin in size?
A. actin filaments
Centrosomes are associated with
Which protein filaments are bundled together to form cilia?
Which of the following is not a function of the cytoskeleton?
B. process proteins
Which structure in the human body will use flagella to move?
A malfunction with the microtubules would interfere with mitosis and meiosis.
Explain the functions of adhesion junctions, gap junctions, and tight junctions in human cells.
Adhesion junctions serve to mechanically attach adjacent cells to each other. This type of junction allows movement of molecules between connected cells. It forms a porous type of barrier.
Gap junctions serve to communicate information between cells. It forms a channel that allows for the rapid movement of molecules from one cell to the next.
Tight junctions make solid connections between adjacent cells. These cells form a solid barrier.
Which of the following diseases would you expect in someone with malfunctioning cilia?
A. recurrent respiratory infections
Which type of junctions must there be between cells to form a barrier?
C. tight junctions
Cilia are composed of microtubules while flagella are composed of actin filaments.
In an experiment in the laboratory, a small colored molecule is injected into one cell. Within minutes, the molecule has entered the adjacent cells. What type of junctions connect these cells?
A. gap junctions
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